Through the Stanford Center for Professional Development, you may take online individual graduate and professional courses in engineering and related fields. Graduate courses may also be audited. Earn a graduate or professional certificate or a master of science degree in engineering part-time, at a pace that works for you.

View all Stanford University online courses and certificates.

Professional Courses

Professional Certificates

Graduate Courses

Graduate Certificates

Master’s Degrees

Course Previews


Master’s Degrees

Stanford Graduation

Stanford part time graduate students come from around the world and from many different industries. Balancing work, life, and a rigorous academic schedule, they contribute their real-world experience to the classroom and bring the innovative spirit of Stanford back to industry. Are you ready to join this exceptional community of learners?

Pursue a Stanford University master of science degree on a part-time basis through the Honors Cooperative Program (HCP). As a HCP student, you will be a fully matriculated graduate student of Stanford University.

How it works:

  • Apply to the academic department through the normal graduate admissions process
  • Complete 45 quarter units of master’s degree study in five years or less
  • Receive the same student privileges, rights, and responsibilities as a full-time residential student, including access to the full Stanford curriculum
  • You are welcome to come to campus at any time to attend class, meet with instructors and classmates, and use Stanford libraries

The Stanford Center for Professional Development provides online access to courses and customer service and handles financial transactions for tuition and related fees. If they are not already, your employer must become a member of the Stanford Center for Professional Development for you to pursue your master’s degree as an HCP student.

While preparing your application, you may take individual courses under the Non Degree Option. Up to 18 graduate credit units earned while taking individual courses or earning a graduate certificate can be applied toward your degree program.

Applying for your Master’s Degree

  • Step 1: Choose a Course of Study

    Explore available graduate degrees listed by department to the right.

    Decide which degree program is right for you.

    Ensure you meet any applicable prerequisites.

  • Step 2: Prepare Your Application

    Review the graduate admissions process. Your Graduate Record Exams (GRE) scores may be no older than 5 years.

    Ensure you meet any applicable prerequisites.

    Discuss your plans with your employer to gain their support.

    Know your company’s tuition reimbursement policies.

    Consider enrolling in an individual graduate course for credit first to determine if distance learning and part-time graduate studies are right for you.

  • Step 3: Submit your Application Package

    Select the appropriate application deadline. Several departments accept applications only once a year, others have rolling admissions for HCP applicants.

    Follow the graduate admissions process for submitting your application package.

  • Step 4: Complete the Admissions Process


Statistics MS Degree

MS Degree or Depth

15 Courses Required: View Course Selections


The department requires that students take 45 units of work from offerings in the Department of Statistics or from authorized courses in other departments. The units break down into 4 required categories:

  • Statistics Core
  • Statistics Depth
  • Linear Algebra Mathematics
  • Programming

The required courses must be taken for a letter grade and students must maintain an overall GPA of 2.75 or higher to earn their Master’s degree. In addition to the required courses, students must take elective courses to complete the unit requirement. This degree requires on campus attendance, as a majority of the coursework is not available at a distance. To view the list of required courses and approved electives, please refer to the Statistics Department web site: Statistics Department Degree Program

Statistics Core Requirement

To satisfy the breadth requirement students must take 4 core courses in statistics. These courses are:

  • Probability (Stats116)
  • Stochastic Processes (Stats217)
  • Applied Statistics (Stats191)
  • Theoretical Statistics (Stats200)

All must be taken for a letter grade. Students with a prior background in any of these areas may replace specific courses with a more advanced course from the same area. For replacement course options please use the link located above in “Description” section.

Statistic Depth Requirement

To satisfy the depth requirement students must take four additional courses in statistics from the 200 or 300 level. All must be taken for a letter grade.

Linear Algebra Mathematics Requirement

Students must take one of the following courses to satisfy the mathematics requirement:

  • Applied Matrix Theory (Math 104)
  • Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory (Math 113)

Students who have had linear algebra may take a more advanced mathematics course, (e.g. Math 115 – Functions of a Real Variable or Math 171 – Fundamental Concepts of Analysis) or other math courses with their program advisor’s approval.

Programming Requirement

Students may take one of the following courses to satisfy the programming requirement:

  • Programming Methodology (CS106A)
  • Programming Methodology and Abstractions (CS106X)
  • Intro to Scientific Computing (CS137)

Students who have these skills may elect a more advanced CS course.


Graduate courses crosslisted with the Statistics department are approved as electives for the program. Please refer to the Statistics Department web site for a list of approved elective courses: Approved Elective Courses

Other graduate courses (200 or above) may be authorized by the program advisor if they provide skills relevant to statistics or deal primarily with an application of statistics or probability and do not overlap with courses in the student’s program.

MS in Statistics

The MS in Statistics is a popular degree as either a terminal degree or together with a doctorate in another field. Visit this Admissions page for instructions on applying to add the degree (for those already enrolled at Stanford). 

Program Summary

The department requires that the student take 45 units of work from offerings in the Department of Statistics or from authorized courses in other departments. Of these 45 units, eight statistics courses from the list of required courses must be taken for a letter grade. Units for a given course may not be counted to meet the requirements of more than one degree, that is, no units may be double-counted (for example, students who have already taken STATS 116 and have counted it toward their undergraduate or another Master’s degree should discuss with their advisor a choice of a suitable replacement course). An overall 2.75 grade point average (GPA) is required. Additional courses from the list of authorized electives may be used to complete the unit requirement. Because departments often change their offerings, please contact one of the master’s advisors for approval of courses not on this list. Each student must also complete the mathematics and the programming requirements. Courses other than the eight required statistics courses may be taken for a letter grade or Credit/No Credit. There is no thesis requirement.

                           Masters Program Proposal Form

                           Masters Program Proposal Form

Department seminars are an integral part of the program and provide an opportunity to interact with leading academic and industry speakers. 

You cannot count more than six units of Stats 260ABC (Workshop in Biostatistics), Stats 298 (Industrial Research), Stats 390 (Consulting Workshop), Stats 299 (Independent Study) or Stats 399 (Research) toward the master’s degree requirements.

Courses below 200 level are generally not acceptable, with the following exceptions:
Stats: 116, 191
Math: 104, 113, 115, 151, 171, 180
CS: 106A, 106B, 106X, 140-181
At most, one of these two courses may be counted:
1. Math 151 or Stats 116
2. Math 104 or Math 113

With the advice of the masters advisors and of peer students, each student selects his/her own set of electives and pace of study. Ordinarily, four or five quarters are needed to complete all requirements.  Students who do not complete all requirements within three years of admission will have their program terminated.

Accelerated load (9 months – not typical): September-June; typically 5 courses per quarter for 3 quarters
Normal load (12 months): September-August; 3-4 courses per quarter for 4 quarters, including one summer quarter
Normal load (15-18 months – more common scenarios):
September-June, September-December or March; This allows for greater flexibility in choosing electives and a lighter course load in the last quarter (which can then be dedicated to job interviewing).

All students are expected to abide by the Honor Code and the Fundamental Standard.

Masters Advisor
Students’ academic progress is monitored by a faculty advisor, currently Brad Efron, David Donoho, and Joseph Romano.

Office hours for Winter Quarter:

Brad Efron: By appointment only

David Donoho: By appointment only

Joseph Romano: On sabbatical this quarter; please contact Professor Efron or Professor Donoho if you need to speak with an advisor regarding your courses and have your program proposal approved.

Students with a master’s degree have found employment in industry, pharmaceuticals, government and business, or have completed further study toward a PhD (at Stanford or another institution).

The American Statistical Association, in conjunction with other statistical societies, has prepared a brochure, “Careers in Statistics”, that can be obtained by writing to the ASA (1429 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-3402). The ASA also maintains a website,, and the section on education and careers may be helpful.

The book 101 Careers in Mathematics, published by the Mathematical Association of America  (P.O. Box 91112, Washington, DC 20090-1112; phone 1-800-331-1MAA; fax 1-301-206-9789) provides a description of careers in the mathematical sciences, and includes about ten careers in statistics. This book also includes an appendix that provides information about finding a job.

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Beijing Normal University

   Master’s Program (education )

  • Education Science
  • Psychology
  • Science of Physical Culture and Sport

Educational Management and Leadership

  • Student Rating of This School:
  • 3.1 / 51 Reviews
  • Qualification Awarded:
  • Master’s Degree
  • Duration of Study:
  • 2 years
  • Starting Date:
  • Sep. 2013
  • Application Deadline:
  • Jun.15 2013
  • Tuition Fees
  • RMB 34,000 per year
  • Application Fee:
  • 100 USD (Non-Refundable)
  • Teaching Language:
  • English
  • Chinese requirement:
  • None
  • Academic Requirement:
  • Bachelor’s Degree

Program Description

1. Introduction

Education discipline and teacher education have become distinctive characteristics of Beijing Normal University. The program aims to train talented individuals from all over the world so that they can develop a deep theoretical understanding of education theory and a wide knowledge of fundamental trends in education reform and development. The specific objectives of the program include:

    • Educational Knowledge

understanding theories and methodologies of comparative education, major trends of international educational development and educational practices in various nations.

    • Educational Abilities

possessing an international perspective when analyzing issues of educational policy, management, leadership and evaluation. Students will develop the fundamental abilities to identify similarities and differences in the education of various areas and countries, to summarize the university characteristics of educational development worldwide, and to learn international experience in educational practice.

    • Educational Attitudes

developing the ability to analyze international experience consciously and critically, to maintain an open mind to the rich and diverse educational practices worldwide and to respect unique characteristics of educational practices in various countries and areas.

2. Study Duration and Tuition Fee

Study duration: 2 years (4 semesters)

Tuition fee: 68000 RMB

3. Credits and Courses

38 including 8 compulsory courses with total 22 credits, at least 3 optional courses with total 6 credits. *1 credit= 18 study hours.

4. Courses

Semester Curriculum Type Credits Minimum Credits
I Chinese History and Culture compulsory 2 10
Comparative Education compulsory 3
Introduction to Education Research Method compulsory 3
Education Systems, Policy and Management in China optional 2
Basic Chinese optional 2
II Educational Planning: Theory and Practice compulsory 3 10
Educational Management and Leadership compulsory 3
Quantitative Research Methods or Qulitative Research Methods (choose one) compulsory 2
Education and Development optional 2
Education and Rural Development optional 2
Educational Statistics, Evaluation and Measurement optional 2
III Education Policy Analysis compulsory 3 8
Independent Study (related to future research thesis) compulsory 3
Internship compulsory 1
SPSS and Quantitative Data Analysis optional 1
N-vivo and Qualitative Data Analysis optional 1
SWOT Analysis optional 1
Educational Reforms: International Perspectives optional 2
IV Thesis   6 6

Note: A master degree will be obtained after students submit their dissertation, attend and pass the dissertation defense and the Committee for the Conferment of Academic Degrees of Beijing Normal University approves of the dissertation.

Entry Requirements

  • Applicant should be non-Chinese citizens holding a foreign passport under 50 years old. (Former Chinese citizens naturalized into other nationalities are required to provide certification of the cancellation of their Hukou and ID card; this certification should be issued by the Public Security Bureau.)
  • Bachelor’s Degree
  • Since the program is offered in English, a good mastery of the language is required. Foreign students with English as a second language must be able to verify their English proficiency (e.g. having a basic degree from an institution in an English-speaking country or a certificate documenting performance on an international test: in the case of TOEFL, a score above 550 points /80 points is required, and for IETLS, a score above 6.0 is required.)

Application Materials

  1. Photocopy of valid passport
    With name, passport number & expiration date, and photo included
  2. Passport photo
    A recent passport-sized photo of the applicant
  3. Undergraduate school transcript
  4. Bachelor’s degree diploma
    Graduation certificate in languages other than Chinese or English should be translated into Chinese or English and be certified by notarization.
  5. English proficiency test certificate
    For example, IELTS or TOEFL, only for applicant whose native language is not English.
  6. Two letters of recommendation
    From professor or associate professor or equivalents
  7. Admission Approval Form.
  8. Completed Personal Statement Form
    Written in Chinese or in English.
  9. Photocopies of any published academic papers, patents, or other academic achievements
  10. Letter of guarantee
    The guardian should write out his/her name, nationality, occupation and address (if an organization acts as the guardian, reference to the organization should be made clear).
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curricular web

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host skul,location of the skul, courses offered, subjects, units, pla ca oras mhuman ang klase, pla byad xa tution, pla admission requirements, how to avail scholarship,,,….

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Online Programs

Degree Completion (Undergraduate)

Credit Certificate Programs

If you’d like to be notified when more information is available regarding these upcoming programs, please complete the info request form. Thank you.


Technical Requirements

  Recommended Minimum
Operating System: Windows XP/Vista/Win7 or Macintosh OS X Windows XP or Macintosh OS X
Processor: 3 GHz 2 GHz
Memory: 2 – 3 GB 1 GB
Plug-ins: Adobe PDF reader, Flash Player, Java, QuickTime Adobe PDF reader, Flash Player, Java, QuickTime
Browser: Internet Explorer 7.0/8.0 or Firefox 3.6 Internet Explorer 7.0 or Firefox 3.6
Display: 1280×1024 800×600
Software: Microsoft – Office 2007 or Office 2010 Microsoft Office XP or OpenOffice
Internet Connection: DSL/CABLE/FiOS DSL/CABLE
E-mail Account: CSUF student email account CSUF student email account
Sound Card: Required Required
Other: External Webcam and Headset Microphone External Webcam and Headset Microphone
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California State University, Fullerton

Online Programs

CSU Extended Education offices have developed a growing inventory of courses, certificates, and degree programs offered via online technologies. Most of these courses and programs do not require campus attendance. The online courses and programs provide maximum interaction with the faculty member and other students in the course. While international students wishing to travel to California are welcome in all Extended and Continuing Education programs, individuals needing to remain in their home country are encouraged to explore the wide variety of online programs described on the campus sites below. Information on courses’ prerequisites and admission requirements can be provided by the campus Extended University offices.

Students who have started work towards a bachelor’s degree and would like to finish a degree may be interested in the bachelor’s degree completion programs listed here and in the Off-Campus Degrees section.

CSU Bakersfield

  • Bachelor of Science in Environmental Resource Management
  • Master of Arts in Education: Curriculum & Instruction
  • Master of Science in Administration

CSU Chico

  • Bachelor of Science in Computer Science
  • Master of Science in Computer Science

CSU Dominguez Hills

  • Bachelor of Science in Nursing
  • Bachelor of Science in Quality Assurance
  • Bachelor of Science in Applied Studies
  • Humanities M.A. External Degree Program (HUX)
  • Master of Arts in Negotiation, Conflict Resolution and Peace Building
  • Master of Business Administration (MBA)
  • Master of Public Administration (MPA)
  • Master of Science in Nursing
  • Master of Science in Quality Assurance

CSU East Bay

  • Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
  • Master of Science in Education, Option in Online Teaching & Learning
  • Master of Science in Educational Leadership
  • Master of Science in Health Care Administration

CSU Fresno

  • Master of Arts in Reading
  • RN to BSN

CSU Fullerton

  • Bachelor of Art in Business Administration
  • Bachelor of Art in Sociology

CSU Long Beach

  • Master of Science in Emergency Services Administration

California Maritime Academy

  • Master of Science in Transportation & Engineering Management.

CSU Monterey Bay

  • Master of Business Administration

CSU Northridge

  • Master of Science in Assistive Technology & Services
  • Master of Public Administration in Public Policy
  • Master of Science in Communication Disorders and Sciences
  • Master of Arts in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
  • Master of Science in Engineering Management
  • Master of Arts in Knowledge Management

Sacramento State

  • Career & Technical Education
  • Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice
  • Master of Science, Accountancy General Concentration

CSU San Bernardino

  • Master of Arts in Criminal Justice

San Diego State University

  • Master of Arts in Educational Technology
  • Master of Science in Regulatory Affairs

San José State University

  • Master of Science in Occupational Therapy
  • Master’s of Library and Information Science (MLIS)
  • Master’s of Public Health (MPH)

CSU Stanislaus

  • Master of Business Administration

Financial Aid and Tuition Rates

CSU systemwide undergraduate, full-time tuition fee per academic year has increased from $1,428 in 2001/02 to $5,472 effective fall 2011. Principally in response to a serious economic downturn that began at the start of this decade, state General Fund contributions to the CSU have been reduced by $868 million. During this time, CSU increased fees at an annual average rate of 15 percent over the 10 year period (which averages rate changes that included a low of no fee increase in 2006 and a high of 32 percent in 2009). These increases were necessary in order to address the continuing budget needs of the CSU that were no longer being funded by the state General Fund.

In 2004/05, the Higher Education Compact called for predictable and measurable tuition fee increases, beginning with 14 percent in 2004/05 and 8 percent in each of the next two years for an average 10 percent increase over three years. In 2006/07, the CSU Board of Trustees approved an 8 percent tuition fee increase, but the governor and the legislature chose to buy out the tuition fee increase for that year with a revenue augmentation of $65 million. In 2007/08 and 2008/09, the CSU Board of Trustees approved a 10 percent tuition fee increase as agreed to in the Higher Education Compact for each of those years. The state’s economic downturn commencing in 2008/09 significantly impacted the CSU as state General Funds were substantially reduced. The state funding reductions led to two tuition fee increases in 2009/10, which brought the tuition fee rate for undergraduate students to $4,026 per academic year. In June 2010, CSU approved a tuition fee increase of 5 percent pending final action on the budget (which did not occur until October 2010) bringing the undergraduate rate to $4,230. At that time the Assembly budget committee had advanced a proposal to provide additional state revenues as a partial replacement of fee revenues, in order to make it possible for the university to limit its 2010/11 tuition fee increase to five percent rather than 10 percent. However this proposal was not adopted and the final budget enacted in October required an additional mid-year 2010/11 tuition fee increase of 5 percent, which was approved by the Board of Trustees in November 2010. The annualized academic year undergraduate rate effective Winter/Spring 2011 was $4,440.

In November 2010, Board of Trustees requested that the state buy out the need for student tuition fee increases during the 2011/12 academic year. The Governor’s Budget did not buy out the tuition fee increase and instead reduced state appropriations to CSU by $500 million. In July 2011, the budget enacted for the 2011/12 fiscal year included an additional $150 million reduction in state funding to CSU, bringing the total reduction enacted for the fiscal year to $650 million. The enacted budget package also includes the possibility of an additional cut of up to $100 million, to be determined by the Director of the Department of Finance in December 2011 based on whether, and to what extent, state revenues fall short of budget act assumptions. The impact of these reductions on student fees resulted in the implementation of a 10 percent increase in student fee rates approved by the Board of Trustees in November 2010 plus an increase of 12 percent above the November fee rates to offset the additional $150 million CSU budget reduction enacted in July 2011. The result is an undergraduate tuition fee rate for the 2011/12 academic year of $5,472.

The table that follows shows a 10 year history of changes in CSU tuition fee rates.

Full-time Student Tuition Fee Rates (6.1 units or greater)
Grad and Postbac Explanation of
Rate Increase
2001/02 $1,428   $1,506 Final year of State budget actions over a 7 year period (1995/96 through 2001/02) that bought out annual CSU fee rate increases and reduced CSU fee rates for under- graduates by 10% and graduates by 5%
2002/03 $1,572   $1,734 10% increase in undergraduate fee, 15% increase in graduate fee to offset General Fund mid-year reduction
2003/04 $2,046   $2,256 30% increase in undergraduate and graduate fee to offset General Fund reductions
2004/05 $2,334 $2,706 $2,820 14% increase in undergraduate fee and 25% increase in graduate fees to offset General Fund reductions
2005/06 $2,520 $2,922 $3,102 CSU Compact funding agreement in place; fee rate increase 8% Undergraduate, 10% Graduate
2006/07 $2,520 $2,922 $3,102 CSU Compact funding agreement in place; fee rate increase buy-out per final budget allocation memo
2007/08 $2,772 $3,216 $3,414 CSU Compact funding agreement in place; 10% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees
2008/09 $3,048 $3,540 $3,756 10% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees to offset General Fund reductions
2009/10 $4,026 $4,674 $4,962 10% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees in May 2009 and 20% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees in July 2009 to off-set General Fund reductions
2010/11 $4,440 $5,154 $5,472 Annualized Spring 2011 Rates – 5% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees in June 2010 and 5% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees in November 2010
2011/12 $5,472 $6,348 $6,738

10% increase in undergraduate and graduate fees enacted in November 2010 plus additional 12% increase in rates based on 2011 Final Budget General Fund reductions



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The city Reggio Emilia in Italy is recognized worldwide for its innovative approach to education. Its signature educational philosophy has become known as the Reggio Emilia Approach, one which many preschool programs around the world have adopted. The Reggio Emilia philosophy is based upon the following set of principles:

  • Children must have some control over the direction of their learning;
  • Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, seeing, and hearing;
  • Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore and
  • Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.

The Reggio Emilia approach to teaching young children puts the natural development of children as well as the close relationships that they share with their environment at the center of its philosophy. Early childhood programs that have successfully adapted to this educational philosophy share that they are attracted to Reggio because of the way it views and respects the child.

Parents are a vital component to the Reggio Emilia philosophy. Parents are viewed as partners, collaborators and advocates for their children. Teachers respect parents as each child’s first teacher and involve parents in every aspect of the curriculum. It is not uncommon to see parents volunteering within Reggio Emilia classrooms throughout the school. This philosophy does not end when the child leaves the classroom. Most parents who choose to send their children to a Reggio Emilia program incorporate many of the principles within their parenting and home life. Even with this bridge between school and home, many people wonder what happens to Reggio children when they make the transition from this style of education to a non Reggio Emilia school. The answer is that there is some adjustment that must take place. In most school environments, intellectual curiosity is rewarded[citation needed], so students continue to reap the benefits of Reggio after they’ve left the program.

[edit] Community support and parental involvement

Reggio Emilia’s tradition of community support for families with young children expands on a view, more strongly held in Emilia Romagna and Tuscany, of children as the collective responsibility of the local community. In Reggio Emilia, the infant/toddler and pre-primary program is a vital part of the community, as reflected in the high level of financial support. Community involvement is also apparent in citizen membership in La Consulta, a school committee that exerts significant influence over local government policy.

The parents’ role mirrors the community’s, at both the schoolwide and the classroom level. Parents are expected to take part in discussions about school policy, child development concerns, and curriculum planning and evaluation. Because a majority of parents—including mothers—are employed, meetings are held in the evenings so that all who wish to participate can do so. Parents have to support their children in whatever choice they like.

[edit] The role of teachers

In the Reggio approach, the teacher is considered a co-learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor. Teachers are encouraged to facilitate the child’s learning by planning activities and lessons based on the child’s interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively engaging in the activities alongside the child, instead of sitting back and observing the child learning. “As partner to the child, the teacher is inside the learning situation” (Hewett, 2001).

Some implementations of the Reggio Emilia approach self-consciously juxtapose their conception of the teacher as autonomous colearner with other approaches. For example:

Teachers’ long-term commitment to enhancing their understanding of children is at the crux of the Reggio Emilia approach. Their resistance to the American use of the term model to describe their program reflects the continuing evolution of their ideas and practices. They compensate for the meager preservice training of Italian early childhood teachers by providing extensive staff development opportunities, with goals determined by the teachers themselves. Teacher autonomy is evident in the absence of teacher manuals, curriculum guides, or achievement tests. The lack of externally imposed mandates is joined by the imperative that teachers become skilled observers of children in order to inform their curriculum planning and implementation.[1]

While working on projects with the child, the teacher can also expand the child’s learning by collecting data such as photographs, notes, videos, and conversations that can be reviewed at a later time. The teacher needs to maintain an active, mutual participation in the activity to help ensure that the child is clearly understanding what is being “taught”.

[edit] The role of the environment

[edit] The Environment as a third Teacher

The organization of the physical environment is crucial to Reggio Emilia’s early childhood program, and is often referred to as the child’s “third teacher”. Major aims in the planning of new spaces and the remodeling of old ones include the integration of each classroom with the rest of the school, and the school with the surrounding community. The importance of the environment lies in the belief that children can best create meaning and make sense of their world through environments which support “complex, varied, sustained, and changing relationships between people, the world of experience, ideas and the many ways of expressing ideas.” [2]

The preschools are generally filled with indoor plants and vines, and awash with natural light. Classrooms open to a center piazza, kitchens are open to view, and access to the surrounding community is assured through wall-size windows, courtyards, and doors to the outside in each classroom. Entries capture the attention of both children and adults through the use of mirrors (on the walls, floors, and ceilings), photographs, and children’s work accompanied by transcriptions of their discussions. These same features characterize classroom interiors, where displays of project work are interspersed with arrays of found objects and classroom materials. In each case, the environment informs and engages the viewer.

Other supportive elements of the environment include ample space for supplies, frequently rearranged to draw attention to their aesthetic features. In each classroom there are studio spaces in the form of a large, centrally located atelier and a smaller mini-atelier, and clearly designated spaces for large- and small-group activities. Throughout the school, there is an effort to create opportunities for children to interact. Thus, the single dress-up area is in the center piazza; classrooms are connected with telephones, passageways or windows; and lunchrooms and bathrooms are designed to encourage community.[3]

Groups of children will stay with one particular teacher for a three-year period, creating consistency and an environment where there are no added pressures from having to form new relationships.

[edit] Long-term projects as vehicles for learning

The curriculum is characterized by many features advocated by contemporary research on young children, including real-life problem-solving among peers, with numerous opportunities for creative thinking and exploration. Teachers often work on projects with small groups of children, while the rest of the class engages in a wide variety of self-selected activities typical of preschool classrooms.

The projects that teachers and children engage in are different in a number of ways from those that characterize American teachers’ conceptions of unit or thematic studies. The topic of investigation may derive directly from teacher observations of children’s spontaneous play and exploration. Project topics are also selected on the basis of an academic curiosity or social concern on the part of teachers or parents, or serendipitous events that direct the attention of the children and teachers. Reggio teachers place a high value on their ability to improvise and respond to children’s predisposition to enjoy the unexpected. Regardless of their origins, successful projects are those that generate a sufficient amount of interest and uncertainty to provoke children’s creative thinking and problem-solving and are open to different avenues of exploration. Because curriculum decisions are based on developmental and sociocultural concerns, small groups of children of varying abilities and interests, including those with special needs, work together on projects.

Projects begin with teachers observing and questioning children about the topic of interest. Based on children’s responses, teachers introduce materials, questions, and opportunities that provoke children to further explore the topic. While some of these teacher provocations are anticipated, projects often move in unanticipated directions as a result of problems children identify. Thus, curriculum planning and implementation revolve around open-ended and often long-term projects that are based on the reciprocal nature of teacher-directed and child-initiated activity. All of the topics of interest are given by the children. Within the project approach, children are given opportunities to make connections between prior and new knowledge while engaging in authentic tasks…

[edit] The hundred languages of children

As children proceed in an investigation, generating and testing their hypotheses, they are encouraged to depict their understanding through one of many symbolic languages, including drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing. They work together toward the resolution of problems that arise. Teachers facilitate and then observe debates regarding the extent to which a child’s drawing or other form of representation lives up to the expressed intent. Revision of drawings (and ideas) is encouraged, and teachers allow children to repeat activities and modify each other’s work in the collective aim of better understanding the topic. Teachers foster children’s involvement in the processes of exploration and evaluation, acknowledging the importance of their evolving products as vehicles for exchange.[4]

[edit] Loris Malaguzzi International Centre

Reggio Emilia helds the Loris Malaguzzi International Centre, a modern structure where the Reggio Emilia approach is implemented, exported and spread around the world. For the promotion of education of quality in the world, the centre host the Reggio Children – Loris Malaguzzi Centre Foundation[5]

[edit] Conclusion

Reggio Emilia’s approach to early education reflects a theoretical kinship with John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner, among others. Much of what occurs in the class reflects a constructivist approach to early education. Reggio Emilia’s approach does challenge some conceptions of teacher competence and developmentally appropriate practice. For example, teachers in Reggio Emilia assert the importance of being confused as a contributor to learning; thus a major teaching strategy is purposely to allow mistakes to happen, or to begin a project with no clear sense of where it might end. Another characteristic that is counter to the beliefs of many Western educators is the importance of the child’s ability to negotiate in the peer group.

One of the most challenging aspects of the Reggio Emilia approach is the solicitation of multiple points of view regarding children’s needs, interests, and abilities, and the concurrent faith in parents, teachers, and children to contribute in meaningful ways to the determination of school experiences. Teachers trust themselves to respond appropriately to children’s ideas and interests, they trust children to be interested in things worth knowing about, and they trust parents to be informed and productive members of a cooperative educational team. The result is an atmosphere of community and collaboration that is developmentally appropriate for adults and children alike.


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___________17.) It is composed of different types of soil and humus.

a. loam

b. clay


_____________18.) A type of soil that is finer than sound but coarser than clay.

a. loam

b. clay

c. silt

_____________19.) The coarsest particles. It can be of light or dark color.

a. loam

b. silt

c. sand

______________20.) water from the oceans and seas is salty. What do you called the process in which salt can be separated?

a. evaporation

b. desalination

c. photosynthesis

______________21.) Which water is safe to drink?

a. sea water

b. pond water

c. ground water

______________22.)How do we get ground water?

a. use of deep wells

b. use of dams

c. use of pails

______________23.) if we need water from irrigation, where can we get it?

a. from the rivers

b. from the sea

c. from underground

______________24.) What shall we do if we are not sure of the safety of our drinking water?

a. heat it under the sun

b. put it inside the refrigerator

c. boil it for at least 15 minutes

______________25.) water is helpful to________.

a. plants, wood, and animals

b. animals, plants, and man

c. man, plants, and houses

______________26.) Carabao’s stay in the mud because they?

a. are thirsty

b. are dirty animals

c. want to be refreshed

_____________27.) Why is water important to living things?

a. because they take a bath

b. because they are alive

c. because without water they will die

_____________28.) how can you help plants grow better?

a. water them regularly

b. hide them in the shade

c. water them when the soil is dry

_____________29.) Where can we found the topsoil?

a. uppermost

b.below the bedrock

c. between the subsoil and bedrock

_____________30.) Where can we found the subsoil?

a. below the bedrock

b. below the topsoil

c. uppermost


DIRECTION: Write True if the statement is true and false if it is false. 2pts. each

1.) We should not waste water.

2.) we should clean the canals,rivers, and seas to keep the water clean.

3.) throwing garbage anywhere is helpful to our surroundings.

4.) Polluted water can make us healthy.

5.) Water came from artesian well is not safe to drink.

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Early literacy is everything children know about reading, writing, speaking, listening and visual representations, before they know how to perform these skills. Early literacy experiences form the building blocks for

language, reading and writing development during elementary school and beyond.


Early literacy is not the “teaching of reading” or a “teaching of writing”. It is a growing understanding of listening, speaking, reading and writing exposures and experiences, not the reading and writing itself.

Your child will “formally” learn how to read and write in school.

Reading and writing skills are important for our children, but from birth to five years of age, it is not the main focus of literacy experiences.

The main focus of promoting early literacy at home should be on providing everyday, ordinary and natural experiences involving the use of language, writing and reading, which builds early literacy development.


•Brain development research shows that reading aloud to your child every day increases his brain’s capacity for language and literacy skills and is one of the most important things you can do to prepare him for learning to read later.

•When you read, talk or play with your child, you’re stimulating the growth of your child’s brain and building the connections that will become the building blocks for reading.

•Another important thing you can do to foster early literacy is provide an atmosphere that’s fun, verbal and stimulating, not school-like. The focus should not be on teaching, but on the fun you’re having with your child.

•Offer your child plenty of opportunities to talk and be listened to, to read and be read to, and to sing and be sung to.


Provide a print rich environment- Simply put, have lots of reading, writing, and real life materials where your child can see it and get to it. It does not have to cost a fortune. You can use common household items that you may have lying around, such as:

•Notebook paper and clipboards

•Pencils, crayons, markers and other writing tools

•Stationary, greeting cards, note pads, and index cards

•Shopping lists, envelopes, order forms, and phone memo pads

•Alphabet books and magnetic letters

•Various items for tracing

•White board or chalk board

•Grocery store ads and sales flyers

•Cereal boxes and other food labels

•If you have a home computer, allow your child to use it, but only occasionally

•Encourage your child to draw pictures of their favorite stories and of things they have seen, heard and done.

•Encourage the use of rhyming words and word play.

•Take it a step further by making a rhyme or poem out of an experience, such as: I sat on the rug and saw a bug. It made me shrug, so mom gave me a hug.

•Provide opportunities to experience new things and to ask questions.- Going on a trip to the store, going to the library, or going to a museum.

•Use good literature, both of fiction and non-fiction.

•Make a game of identifying pictures in books

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